Secondary School Profiles 2018/2019 Explanatory Notes
We hope the following could help parents acquire a clearer picture of the schools and understand the various effects in education through diversified development. As such, parents should fully consider and evaluate all aspects of schools when choosing schools. All the information in the Profiles is provided and verified by schools in September of the current school year. In the e-version of the Profiles, parents can make use of the hyperlinks to acquire more updated information. To facilitate the understanding of individual items contained in the Profiles, the brief interpretations are listed as follows:
- 1. 【Supervisor/ Chairman of the School Management Committee】
- Before an incorporated management committee (IMC) is established in respect of an aided school, the aided school shall be managed by its school management committee (SMC). When an IMC has been established, the school shall be managed by the IMC. The SMC / IMC of a school shall be responsible for ensuring that the school is managed satisfactorily, the education of the pupils is promoted in a proper manner and the Education Ordinance is complied with. The SMC shall also recommend for the approval of the Permanent Secretary for Education (PS(Ed)) a manager of the school to be the supervisor. Whereas, the IMC shall give notice in writing to the PS(Ed) of the assumption of office of the supervisor. The supervisor shall conduct, on behalf of the school, all correspondence between the school and the PS(Ed) or any public officers concerning the management of the school and to perform all functions as stipulated in the Education Ordinance. For government schools, an SMC will be formed with an officer at the directorate level being appointed as Chairman by the Education Bureau.
- 2. 【Incorporated Management Committee (IMC)】
- Under the Education Ordinance, all aided schools have to set up and be managed by an IMC. Schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) may opt to establish an IMC under the Education Ordinance. Members of the IMC include key stakeholders of the school, that is, representatives of the sponsoring body, the principal, independent community member(s) and elected parent, teacher and alumni managers. It is through participatory governance that the spirit of school-based management can be fully realised.
- 3. 【Principal】
- Apart from managing the daily operations of the school including learning and teaching, student support as well as internal and external administrative affairs, the principal should steer sustainable development and continuous improvement of the school. Secondary school principals are generally degree holders with teacher training qualifications, and the majority have obtained higher qualifications. In recent years, through continuing professional development, principals have been enhancing their management and leadership skills so as to attain a high level of professionalism.
- 4. 【School Type, Fees & Management】
- At present, secondary schools are generally divided into various types: government, aided, DSS, caput and private schools. Government schools are managed by the Education Bureau (EDB) directly. Aided and caput schools are managed by their own IMCs or SMCs. However, their subventions are mostly provided by the government. DSS schools are also managed by their own IMCs or SMCs. They can charge school fees and receive government subsidy based on the number of eligible students in the school. DSS schools can provide a more diversified curriculum and draw up admission criteria that are consistent with their own traditions and educational objectives. Private schools are self-financed and managed by their management committees.
- 5. 【School Sponsoring Bodies】
- School sponsoring bodies set the mission and vision of their sponsored schools and play an important role in the schools' establishment and operation. For IMC schools, the functions of their sponsoring body are stipulated in the Education Ordinance.
- 6. 【Religion】
- Different school sponsoring bodies have different mission and vision, with those of the religious organisations more obvious. In general, religious studies are included in the formal curriculum of the schools sponsored by religious organisations, and religious rites and ceremonies are performed in the schools under their sponsorship.
- 7. 【Year of Commencement of Operation】
- Schools founded years ago have a longer history of development and a larger number of alumni compared with schools with shorter history. However, the latter may have relatively newer and more facilities. Therefore, all schools have their unique characteristics and cannot be judged simply on the basis of their length of history.
- 8. 【School Motto】
- School motto is developed during the foundation period in the light of the school's background, mission and vision. Chinese traditional instructions and teachings or religious dictums are always used as guiding principles of the school education.
- 9. 【Area Occupied by the School】
- The Area Occupied by the School is referred to as the site area of the school. At present, the reference site area of a standard 30-classroom secondary school is 6,950 square meters.
- 10. 【Class Structure】
With the full implementation of the New Academic Structure, students should normally be able to complete six years of secondary education in the same school.
Generally, if government, aided or caput schools are not able to operate two S1 classes and the application for a development option* is not approved, they may operate junior secondary classes on the “per capita subvention mode” starting from the following school year. All S1 students admitted to these schools in the year with less than two operating S1 classes and thereafter, upon completing S3, will be centrally placed to S4 in other public sector schools or senior secondary schools under the DSS through the Secondary Four Placement Mechanism.
For exceptional cases where individual schools cannot provide sufficient S4 places for all their own S3 students, those S3 students who cannot obtain S4 places in their own school will also be centrally placed to S4 in other public sector schools or senior secondary schools under the DSS through the Secondary Four Placement Mechanism.
[*For details of the development options that schools can apply for, please refer to Appendix 1 in the Education Bureau Circular No. 3/2013 on “New Measures for Facilitating Development of Secondary Schools”.]
- 11. 【Information of Teaching Staff】
- The number of teachers in each government and aided secondary school is mainly determined by the number of approved classes. All along, the government also provides schools with additional teaching posts and disburses cash grants to schools for employing additional teachers to support the implementation of various education improvement measures. For caput secondary schools, their number of teachers is on par with that of aided secondary schools. DSS secondary schools should draw up school-based policies on various staff administrative matters which have to be endorsed by the SMC/IMC and properly documented.
- 12. 【School Facilities】
The Government has improved the facilities of most government and aided schools through the School Improvement Programme. Apart from the standard facilities, individual schools may procure additional equipment at their own cost. As schools have their own focus of development, the equipment procured may vary. Some schools may provide aids to support students with special educational needs on their learning such as specially designed desks, FM systems, personal computers and CCTV, magnifiers, etc.
Some schools provide barrier-free access and facilities, such as ramp, accessible lift, accessible toilet, other assistive provisions (including braille and tactile floor plan, tactile guide path, accessible public information/service counter and visual fire alarm system) in their premises in order to meet the genuine needs of the students with special educational needs and to facilitate their learning under a favorable environment.
- 13. 【Subjects Offered & Medium of Instruction】
The Education Bureau encourages schools to formulate their school curriculum with regard to their students' interests, aptitudes and abilities so as to provide students with diversified learning opportunities. In general, junior secondary students have to study all the subjects offered by their schools. At senior secondary levels, students will have to select two or three elective subjects in addition to the four core subjects (i.e. Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics and Liberal Studies). It should be noted that elective subjects offered by schools are not totally the same.
Schools are no longer classified into schools using Chinese as the medium of instruction (MOI) and using English as the MOI upon the implementation of MOI fine-tuning at junior secondary levels starting from the 2010/11 school year. Under the fine-tuned framework, school-based MOI arrangements have become diversified including allocation of not more than 25% of the total lesson time (excluding the lesson time for English Language) for extended learning activities (ELA) conducted in English. To enhance transparency, schools should elaborate on the details or upload further information onto the school website for parents' reference.
- 14. 【Senior Secondary Curriculum】
All S4 students have to study the Senior Secondary Curriculum. They are required to study four core subjects, namely, Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics and Liberal Studies as well as two or three elective subjects out of the Senior Secondary elective subjects, Applied Learning courses and/or other language courses. Schools may offer more than 3 elective subjects at S4 to allow students to have more opportunities to explore their own interests.
Senior Secondary elective subjects include the following: “Chinese Literature”, “Literature in English”, “Chinese History”, “Economics”, “Ethics and Religious Studies”, “Geography”, “History”, “Tourism and Hospitality Studies”, “Biology”, “Chemistry”, “Physics”, “Science (Integrated Science or Combined Science)”, “Business, Accounting and Financial Studies”, “Design and Applied Technology”, “Health Management and Social Care”, “ Technology and Living” , “Information and Communication Technology”, “Music”, “Visual Arts” and “Physical Education”.
Schools may also offer the following six other languages as one of the elective subjects: French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Spanish and Urdu.
For the Applied Learning courses, students are prepared for further studies and/or for work as well as for lifelong learning through the development of foundation skills, thinking skills, people skills, values and attitudes and career-related competencies which are included in Applied Learning courses in the six areas of studies: (1) Creative Studies; (2) Media and Communication; (3) Business, Management and Law; (4) Services; (5) Applied Science; and (6) Engineering and Production. Starting from the 2014/15 school year, Applied Learning Chinese (for non-Chinese speaking students) pegged at the Qualifications Framework Levels 1-3 is introduced by phases to provide an additional channel exclusively for senior secondary non-Chinese speaking students to obtain an alternative Chinese language qualification to prepare them for further studies and work.
Other Learning Experiences (OLE) is also one of the key components under the senior secondary curriculum framework. Schools should ensure that students are provided with opportunities on Moral and Civic Education, Community Service, Career-related Experiences, Aesthetic Development and Physical Development for their whole-person development.
For the latest information on the Senior Secondary curriculum of the schools, please visit the websites of the respective schools, whereas for the latest development of the New Academic Structure (NAS), please visit the NAS Web Bulletin (www.edb.gov.hk/nas/en ).
- 15. 【Parent-teacher Association】
- The Parent-teacher Association (PTA) is set up in the form of a voluntary organisation. It provides a formal channel for parents to participate in school activities and serves as a platform for teachers and parents to exchange their views and cooperate with each other. It is an important source of support for schools in educating students. At present, all government schools and most aided schools have included parent members or parent managers in their SMCs. For an IMC school, the recognised PTA is responsible for conducting parent manager election and may nominate such number of suitable persons for registration as parent managers of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution.
- 16. 【Student Union】
- The setting up of a student union symbolises the development of student activities. It also plays the crucial role in fostering student activities. Its aims are to nurture students' team spirit and train up their leadership.
- 17. 【Past Students' Association/Alumni Association】
- Alumni Association (AA) is set up to promote alumni fellowship and to enhance the bonding with their alma mater. In general, its functions are to maintain friendship among alumni, contribute to the alma mater and to establish the school ethos. At present, all government schools and most of the aided schools have included alumni member(s) or alumni manager(s) in their SMCs. For an IMC school, according to the Education Ordinance, the recognised AA may nominate such number of suitable persons for registration as alumni manager(s) of the school as may be provided for in the IMC constitution.
- 18. 【Life-wide Learning Activities including/ Extra-curricular Activities, Co-curricular Activities, etc.】
- Life-wide learning (LWL) has all along been one of the most widely adopted strategies to enable students to gain a variety of experiences, including the five essential learning experiences, that are more difficult to acquire in ordinary classroom settings. LWL takes place in the learning and teaching of each Key Learning Area, cross-curricular studies, as well as other out-of-classroom contexts. At the senior secondary (SS) level, besides continuing to support student learning in core and elective subjects, LWL is also effectively carried out through various kinds of experiential learning organised by the school for the curriculum component of Other Learning Experiences (OLE). OLE is accessible to all SS students to complement their learning in core and elective subjects in order to nurture their all-round development and positive values.
- 19. 【Orientation / Summer Activities for S1 Intake】
- To facilitate students proceeding to S1 to accommodate to the new school environment and study life, many secondary schools will organise various activities or bridging programmes for these students in the summer vacation.
- 20. 【S1 Discretionary Places】
- Under the existing Secondary School Places Allocation (SSPA) System, while government, aided and caput secondary schools are allowed to reserve not more than 30%, DSS secondary schools may reserve more than 30% of their S1 places as discretionary places (DP) for admission of students. Schools accepting DP applications must make public the admission criteria and weightings prior to admission. The admission criteria set by the schools must be fair, just, open and educationally sound. Schools may arrange interviews, but no written test should be conducted. DP applications are accepted within the same period in January each year.
Currently, all government, aided and caput secondary schools participate in the SSPA System. While some DSS secondary schools participate in the SSPA System, some of them do not. As regards private schools, international schools and schools of the English Schools Foundation (ESF), they are not included in the SSPA System.
- 21. 【Career and Life Planning】
Starting from the 2014/15 school year, the EDB has provided each public sector and Direct Subsidy Scheme schools operating classes at senior secondary levels with a recurrent Career and Life Planning (CLP) Grant to enhance the capacity of schools and their responsible teaching team so as to enhance co-ordination and promote life planning education. Schools will provide all students with quality life planning education and career guidance services which are aligned with their developmental needs at different stages of growth.
Students will be supported to make informed choices in accordance with their interests, abilities and orientations, and assisted in managing and adapting to the transition from school to the workplace. The ultimate goal is to see all students, irrespective of their abilities, orientation and levels of studies being able to understand their own career and academic aspirations; develop positive attitudes towards work and learning; connect/integrate aspirations with whole-person development and life-long learning, and utilise the acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes whenever necessary. Please refer to EDBCM6/2014 for details.
Starting from the 2016/17 school year, schools can turn CLP Grant into regular teaching posts. Please refer to EDBCM36/2016 for details. The EDB has also provided a one-off cash grant, Transitional Career and Life Planning Grant (TCLPG), amounting at HK$100,000 so as to facilitate schools' smooth transition to their revised plan with a view to effectively deploying the additional regular teaching post to further strengthen the professional capacity of the career guidance team and better support students in life planning education. Please refer to EDBCM168/2016 for details.
In planning for the school-based career guidance service, schools may make reference to the “The Guide on Life Planning Education and Career Guidance for Secondary Schools” which has been uploaded onto the EDB website at www.edb.gov.hk/lifeplanning.
- 22. 【Development of Key Tasks】
- Since 2001, the Curriculum Development Council (CDC) has recommended the implementation of the Four Key Tasks, namely Moral and Civic Education, Reading to Learn, Project Learning, and Information Technology for Interactive Learning, from primary one to secondary three to help students develop their generic skills and independent learning capabilities through incorporating cross-curricular learning within and across Key Learning Areas/subjects. Schools have been encouraged to implement the Four Key Tasks as separate learning and teaching strategies or by connecting together. In 2017, the CDC recommended the updating of Four Key Tasks of secondary education under the ongoing renewal of the school curriculum, namely Moral and Civic Education: Towards Values Education, Reading to Learn: Towards Reading across the Curriculum, Project Learning: Towards Integrating and Applying Knowledge and Skills across Disciplines, and Information Technology for Interactive Learning: Towards Self-directed Learning, to further develop students' self-directed learning capabilities.
- 23. 【Performance Assessment】
- The frequency of subject-based tests and examinations per year is set out in line with the school assessment policy for enhancing learning. Different modes of assessment are used to diagnose students' learning problems. Quality feedback can be given to inform students on how to improve their learning effectiveness. Assessment accommodations should be provided according to the needs of the students allowing them an equal opportunity to demonstrate their learning outcomes.
- 24. 【Whole School Approach to Catering for Student Diversity】
- The aims are to develop an inclusive school culture; enhance the understanding and acceptance of students with special educational needs(SEN) by school personnel, students and parents; provide appropriate support for students and strengthen school's effectiveness in catering for student diversity. Under the leadership of the school head, the school establishes an inclusive education policy, flexibly and fully utilizes additional resources, works out a plan to arrange teachers to attend relevant special education teacher training courses in a systematic manner, mobilizes the school personnel, parents and students to work collaboratively to support students with SEN. Based on the needs of students, the school draws up Individual Education Plans, adapts the curriculum according to the abilities of students and uses differentiated teaching such as using visual strategies for autistic students. The school also employs a variety of assessment methods to demonstrate the learning outcome of students. To strengthen parents' understanding on the inclusive policy, resources and measures to support students with SEN, the school establishes a regular communication mechanism to inform parents of the progress as well as to jointly plan the support measures and review their effectiveness, including inviting parents to join the Individual Education Plan meetings. Besides, appropriate assistive technology is also introduced to ensure that every student can participate in diversified learning activities to develop his/her potential to the fullest.
The Government is committed to encouraging and supporting non-Chinese speaking (NCS) (including ethnic minority) students' early integration into the community, including facilitating their adaptation to the local education system and mastery of the Chinese language. The Government ensures equal opportunities in school admission for all eligible children including NCS children and their learning of Chinese on par with their Chinese-speaking counterparts. Starting from the 2014/15 school year, the Education Bureau has implemented the “Chinese Language Curriculum Second Language Learning Framework” in schools to help NCS students overcome the difficulties of learning Chinese as a second language. In tandem, the Education Bureau will continue to provide support to schools with a view to enhancing NCS students' learning of Chinese and creating an inclusive learning environment in schools. Parents of NCS students are encouraged to choose schools with an immersed Chinese language environment to facilitate their children to learn the Chinese language. For details, please refer to EDB's webpage: www.edb.gov.hk/ncs .
- 25. 【Schools' Major Concerns】
- This refers to the school major concerns in the school development plan in each development cycle.
For the allocation of school places in Part B “Restricted School Choices” of Central Allocation under the SSPA System, the whole territory is divided into 18 secondary school nets in line with the administrative districts. According to the existing policy, the secondary school net to which a student belongs is determined by the physical location of the primary school the student attends. Each school net not only comprises participating secondary schools physically located in the district, but also a number of secondary schools in other districts. The number of secondary schools and school places provided from other districts may vary from year to year according to the demand and supply situation.
S : Secondary Schools in Own District refer to secondary schools physically located in this district.
O: Secondary Schools in Other Districts refer to secondary schools physically located in other districts but providing school places for Part B “Restricted School Choices” of Central Allocation in this school net under the SSPA System.
Secondary Schools in Other Districts included in the e-version of this Profile were those published in the Secondary School List of last SSPA cycle. As for the current SSPA cycle, whether these schools will still be included as Secondary Schools in Other Districts for Part B “Restricted School Choices” of Central Allocation in this school net for the SSPA System and the number of school places they will provide for this school net have yet to be finalised. Parents of students seeking admission to S1 in September 2019 should refer to the information in the Secondary School List published by the Education Bureau in April 2019, and by then the Secondary Schools in Other Districts included in the e-version of this Profile will also be updated concurrently.